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关于Ethos, Pathos, Logos你需要了解的一些事情

在本科阶段基础的英文课中,很多教授会介绍到rhetorical appeals(修辞诉求),特别是在布置persuasive essay或者argumentative essay的时候。在我们代写经历中,我们也时常会遇到要求使用修辞诉求的任务。Rhetorical appeals主要包括三种:ethos,pathos,与logos。这三种修辞诉求由古希腊哲学家亚里士多德提出。Rhetorical appeals能增强大家的论点的有效性和文章的说服力,无论是在写作当中还是persuasive communication当中,使用rhetorical appeals都是十分有必要性的。有趣的是,rhetorical appeals时常出现在各种场合下,不管使用者是否是有意识地使用它们还是无意识的。但是当涉及到需要有意识地使用并且识别rhetorical appeals时,我们就需要详细的去了解每一种rhetorical appeal的类型,因为涉及到rhetorical appeals的英文课会要求大家去有意识地使用与识别ethos,,pathos,和logos。下面就让我们一起来了解一下这三种修辞诉求吧!

1. Ethos

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简单的来说,ethos是一种使用自己的地位,权威,和可信度来说服读者的一种方法。下面是一些使用ethos的例句供大家参考:

Example 1 (政治演讲):As a seasoned diplomat with decades of experience, I can assure you that the proposed foreign policy is rooted in a deep understanding of global dynamics.

Example 2 (广告语):Recommended by thousands of certified dentists, this toothbrush is not only effective but also a trusted choice for your oral health.

Example 3 (环境保护者的话):Having dedicated decades of my life to environmental conversation and preservation, I can attest to the urgency of addressing global warming. Earth’s future is at stake, and action is needed now.

2. Pathos

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Pathos与ethos不同,是通过激发读者的情绪和感受来说服他们的方法。下面是一些pathos的例句供大家参考:

Example 1 (动物权益):Feel the empathy for these innocent animals suffering in overcrowded and inhumane conditions. Support our cause to end cruelty and create a world where animals are treated with kindness.

Example 2 (人道主义危机):Numerous families are in absolute desperation and displaced by conflict, struggling to find shelter and food. Have those war criminals ever thought about the consequences of their actions?

Example 3 (LBGTQ人群拥护): Imagine the pain of being judged and discriminated against simply for being true to yourself. Together, we can create a world where everyone is accepted, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity.

Example 4 (种族歧视):It is rather difficult for the dominant racial group to feel the weight of injustice as individuals of marginalized communities experience discrimination solely based on the color of their skin. We, as human beings, ought to unite in the fight against racism, advocating for a world where everyone is treated with dignity, respect, and equality.

3. Logos

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Logos相比于ethos和pathos更好记忆,因为logos跟logic的开头字母都是“L”。Logos是用逻辑来说服读者或听众的一种方式。让我们来看一些使用logos的例句:

Example 1 (学术论点): According to multiple peer-reviewed studies, there is a positive association between physical activity and mental well-being. Therefore, incorporating exercises into one’s daily routine can be beneficial.

Example 2 (教育):Statistical evidence indicates that countries with higher literacy rates tend to have lower crime rates. Investing in education not only enriches lives but also contributes to a safer society.

Example 3 (历史):Reviewing historical patterns, it is evident that societies embracing diversity and inclusivity tend to experience greater social harmony and innovation. Embracing diversity is not just morally right but strategically beneficial.

使用ethos, pathos, logos时需要注意的事情:

1. Context (语境/内容/写作类型)
并不是所有的场景下都适合使用所有的修辞诉求,比如在学术写作当中,我们时常需要保持一个中立,客观,不被情绪所影响的语气(tone)。所以这个时候需要避免用到pathos。在描写很多弱势群体或不公正待遇时,很常见的一个动词是“suffer”,suffer本身带有pathos的特性,且带有negative connotation。在学术写作当中,可以考虑将suffer换成experience之类的中立性词语。如以下例子:

People living in poverty suffer from negative health outcomes.
可改为:
People living in poverty experience negative health outcomes.

2. Ethics (避免通过使用修辞诉求将特定的价值观念,道德观念强加在读者身上)
无论是哪一种写作类型,将特定的观念强加在读者身上都是需要避免的。去假设每一个读者都有着一样的观念,通过使用修辞诉求来绑架读者,从而想达到增强自己的说服力的方式在很多时候会影响你论点的整体性。如以下例子:

Illegal immigrants often have pay a large sum of money to the snakeheads, sacrifice what they have built in their home country, and suffer inhumane treatments to get in this country. Denying their access to the healthcare system is an equivalent of crime against humanity.

非法移民是一个相当有争议的话题,许多人有着对这个话题不一样的理解。将某一个观点用pathos去渲染,然后合理化,以此来说服读者在很多时候是站不住脚的。大家在写persuasive essay或argumentative essay的时候可以注意避免此种做法。当然,在涉及到有相对程度上对错之分更明显的话题时,可以使用这种方法。如涉及到种族歧视,战争犯罪,和基于社会经济地位或社会身份的歧视一类的话题。

3. Incorporate as many rhetorical appeals as possible (尽可能地使用多种修辞诉求)
在合适的时候,尽可能将ethos, pathos, logos全部使用到你的文章或话语当中。使用三种修辞诉求通常会比使用一种修辞诉求更具有说服力。当logos包括的逻辑,证据,ethos包括的权威性,pathos包括的情感全都展现在读者或听者面前时,你的论点会更具有说服力,更加严密。如以下例子:

I have been studying discrimination against minorities for my whole life. It is not my first-hand experience witnessing unfair treatment facing minorities that encourage me to do something about it, actually, numerous research evidences have also indicated just how prevalent racial and institutionalized discrimination is in this country and what effects they have on minorities. The pain and suffering that some of the minority individuals have endured for generations are unimaginable to the dominant race. It is time for us to embrace the fundamental tenets of our country and make a change.

将它拆分开,我们可以看到这段话用到了ethos, pathos, 和logos。
Ethos: I have been studying discrimination against minorities for my whole life. (证明自己在这个领域的权威性与可信度)

Logos: It is not my first-hand experience witnessing unfair treatment facing minorities that encourage me to do something about it, actually, numerous research evidences have also indicated just how prevalent racial and institutionalized discrimination is in this country and what effects they have on minorities. (使用证据来证明)

Pathos: The pain and suffering that some of the minority individuals have endured for generations are unimaginable to the dominant race. It is time for us to embrace the fundamental tenets of our country and make a change. (激起读者的情绪,从而说服他们)

4. Address counter arguments (对反对观点做出回应)
事物都有两面性。在辩论任何一个话题,使用任何一种修辞诉求时,我们都需要对反对观点,不支持自己的论点的证据,情绪做出回应。例如下列例子:

Although people have argued that illegal immigrants have absolutely no rights to access healthcare system in this country because allowing them to do so would undermine the interests of American nationals, there are many things that we should keep in mind, which include the impossibility of illegal immigrants returning to their home country due to the fear of persecution, war in their home country, and having children who were born in this country.

在这里,我们的意图是说服人们接受非法移民。在列出我们的论点之前,我们介绍了反对我们的论点,从而让论点的整体性,客观性变得更强。承认反对观点在使用logos时最为常见。通常我们会使用转折词来介绍反对观点或我们的观点,例如这里的although。我们同样可以使用nevertheless, notwithstanding, however, on the other hand, even though等词来描述。

在这里这篇文章就结束了,希望大家在读完这篇文章后能对ethos, pathos, 和logos有一个基本的了解,基本理解怎么去使用它们,以及在使用它们时需要注意的一些事项。如需要英文课作业代写,persuasive essay代写, argumentative essay代写等,narrative essay代写等,请联系我们

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